Artificial Upwelling Papers
Excellent Review paper - Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered artificial upwelling by Brian Kirke - pdf download
Vershinsky NV, Pshenichnyy BP, Solov'yev AV. Artificial upwelling using the energy of surface waves. Oceanology. 1987;27(3):400–2.
Using Deep Seawater for Biological Production. Takayoshi Toyota and Toshimitsu Nakashima. Oceanus 30, no. 1, 1987.
Clark C.K. Liu, In Mei Sou, Huashan Lin. (2003). Artificial Upwelling and Near-field Mixing of Deep-ocean water Effluent. J. of Marine Env. Eng. Vol. 7, pp 1-14.
Liu, C.C.K., Dai, J., Lin., H. and Guo, F. (1999). Hydrodynamic Performance of Wave-Driven Artificial Upwelling Device. Journal of Engineering Mechanics , Vol.125, No.7, pp.728-732.
J. Berntsen, D.L. Aksnes, and A. Foldvik. (2002) Production enhancement by artificial upwelling: a simulation stud. Hydrobiologia 484: 177-190.
The Deep Ocean Water Upwelling Machine Using Density Current - Creation of Fishing Ground and Absorption of CO2. Ouchi, K.; Nakahara, H. OCEANS apos; 99 MTS/IEEE. (IEEE)
Kern E. Kenyon. (2007) Upwelling by a Wave Pump, J. of Oceanography 63, 327-331.
Nai Kuang Liang, C. T. Hsieh, P. A. Huang, D. J. Li, L. L. Chu, C. L. Wu, and N. T. Liang. Artificial Upwelling Induced by Ocean Currents - Theory and Experiment. Ocean Engng. Vol. 5 pp 83-94.
Deep Ocean Water as Our Next Natural Resource by Masayuki Mac Takahashi (chapter 4)
James Lovelock and Chris Rapley, 26 September 2007, "Ocean pipes could help the Earth to cure itself" letter to Nature
Artificial Upwelling Projects
Perpetual Salt Fountain
Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain by Arnold B. Arons in Physics Teacher, v33 n4 p204-09 Apr 1995
Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert - by Shigenao Maruyama, Koutaro Tsubaki, Keisuke Taira and Seigo Sakai in Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 60 (No. 3), pp. 563-568, 2004
Mechanism for Enhanced Diffusivity in the Deep-Sea Perpetual Salt Fountain - by Xinrong Zhang, Shigenao Maruyama, Koutaro Tsubaki, Seigo Sakai and Masud Behnia in Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62 (No. 2), pp. 133-142, 2006
Continuous measurement of an artificial upwelling of deep sea water induced by the perpetual salt fountain by Koutaro Tsubaki, Shigenao Maruyama, Atsuki Komiya, Hiroaki Mitsugashira in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 75-84
Creation of ocean forest by upwelling of deep seawater using perpetual salt fountains by Tsubaki, K. Maruyama, S. Mitsugashira, H. Zhang, X.R. Komiya, A. in OCEANS'04 / TECHNO-OCEAN'04, (2004-11), pp.304-313
Peter Neushul and Lawerence Badash, Harvesting the Pacific: The Blue Revolution in China and the
Philippines, Osiris 13 (1998), 186-213.
Bottomfeeder - by Taras Grescoe
Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records - by C. P. Summerhayes (Editor), M. V. Angel (Editor), K. C. Emeis (Editor), R. L. Smith (Editor), B. Zeitzschel (Editor)
U.S. Pat. 8602682 Dec., 2013 Resler pdf
U.S. Pat. 3683627 Aug., 1972 Girden.
U.S. Pat. 4051810 Oct., 1977 Breit.
U.S. Pat. 4135364 Jan., 1979 Busick.
U.S. Pat. 4189379 Feb., 1980 Finley.
U.S. Pat. 4311012 Jan., 1982 Finley.
U.S. Pat. 4326840 Apr., 1982 Hicks et. al.
U.S. Pat. 5267812 Dec., 1993 Suzuki et. al.
Theoretical Hydrodynamics by L. M. Milne- Thomson
NOAA on waves link
Pipe friction calculator at Efunda
Nutrients in the Ocean and Primary Production
Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics by Jorge L. Sarmiento and Nicolas Gruber
Marine Geochemistry edited by Horst D. Schulz and Matthias Zabel
Karl DM, Letelier RM. Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364: 257-268.
Prochlorococcus - the most significant phytoplankton
Ocean - Data
Ocean - General
How the Ocean Works - by Mark Denny
Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle - by Richard G. Williams and Michael J. Follows
Marine Ecology - Michel J. Kaiser et al.