Artificial Upwelling Papers

Excellent Review paper - Enhancing fish stocks with wave-powered artificial upwelling by Brian Kirke - pdf download

Vershinsky NV, Pshenichnyy BP, Solov'yev AV. Artificial upwelling using the energy of surface waves. Oceanology. 1987;27(3):400–2.

Using Deep Seawater for Biological Production. Takayoshi Toyota and Toshimitsu Nakashima. Oceanus 30, no. 1, 1987.

Clark C.K. Liu, In Mei Sou, Huashan Lin. (2003). Artificial Upwelling and Near-field Mixing of Deep-ocean water Effluent. J. of Marine Env. Eng. Vol. 7, pp 1-14.

Liu, C.C.K., Dai, J., Lin., H. and Guo, F. (1999). Hydrodynamic Performance of Wave-Driven Artificial Upwelling Device. Journal of Engineering Mechanics , Vol.125, No.7, pp.728-732.

J. Berntsen, D.L. Aksnes, and A. Foldvik. (2002) Production enhancement by artificial upwelling: a simulation stud. Hydrobiologia 484: 177-190.

The Deep Ocean Water Upwelling Machine Using Density Current - Creation of Fishing Ground and Absorption of CO2. Ouchi, K.; Nakahara, H. OCEANS apos; 99 MTS/IEEE. (IEEE)

Kern E. Kenyon. (2007) Upwelling by a Wave Pump, J. of Oceanography 63, 327-331.

Nai Kuang Liang, C. T. Hsieh, P. A. Huang, D. J. Li, L. L. Chu, C. L. Wu, and N. T. Liang. Artificial Upwelling Induced by Ocean Currents - Theory and Experiment. Ocean Engng. Vol. 5 pp 83-94.

Deep Ocean Water as Our Next Natural Resource by Masayuki Mac Takahashi (chapter 4)

James Lovelock and Chris Rapley, 26 September 2007, "Ocean pipes could help the Earth to cure itself" letter to Nature

Artificial Upwelling Projects


University of Hawaii

Kochi Artificial Upwelling Laboratory

Perpetual Salt Fountain

Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain by Arnold B. Arons in Physics Teacher, v33 n4 p204-09 Apr 1995

Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert - by Shigenao Maruyama, Koutaro Tsubaki, Keisuke Taira and Seigo Sakai in Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 60 (No. 3), pp. 563-568, 2004

Mechanism for Enhanced Diffusivity in the Deep-Sea Perpetual Salt Fountain - by Xinrong Zhang, Shigenao Maruyama, Koutaro Tsubaki, Seigo Sakai and Masud Behnia in Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62 (No. 2), pp. 133-142, 2006

Continuous measurement of an artificial upwelling of deep sea water induced by the perpetual salt fountain by Koutaro Tsubaki, Shigenao Maruyama, Atsuki Komiya, Hiroaki Mitsugashira in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 75-84

Creation of ocean forest by upwelling of deep seawater using perpetual salt fountains by Tsubaki, K. Maruyama, S. Mitsugashira, H. Zhang, X.R. Komiya, A. in OCEANS'04 / TECHNO-OCEAN'04, (2004-11), pp.304-313


NOAA Aquaculture Program

The World Aquaculture Society

Peter Neushul and Lawerence Badash, Harvesting the Pacific: The Blue Revolution in China and the
Philippines, Osiris 13 (1998), 186-213.

Wiki Aquaculture

Monterey Bay Seafood Watch

Marine Fish Conservation Network

Bottomfeeder - by Taras Grescoe

Natural Upwelling

NOAA upwelling

Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records - by C. P. Summerhayes (Editor), M. V. Angel (Editor), K. C. Emeis (Editor), R. L. Smith (Editor), B. Zeitzschel (Editor)

Related Patents

U.S. Pat. 8602682 Dec., 2013 Resler pdf
U.S. Pat. 3683627 Aug., 1972 Girden.
U.S. Pat. 4051810 Oct., 1977 Breit.
U.S. Pat. 4135364 Jan., 1979 Busick.
U.S. Pat. 4189379 Feb., 1980 Finley.
U.S. Pat. 4311012 Jan., 1982 Finley.
U.S. Pat. 4326840 Apr., 1982 Hicks et. al.
U.S. Pat. 5267812 Dec., 1993 Suzuki et. al.


Hyperphysics waves

Theoretical Hydrodynamics by L. M. Milne- Thomson

NOAA on waves link

Pipe friction calculator at Efunda

Nutrients in the Ocean and Primary Production

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics by Jorge L. Sarmiento and Nicolas Gruber

Marine Geochemistry edited by Horst D. Schulz and Matthias Zabel

Karl DM, Letelier RM. Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364: 257-268.

Prochlorococcus - the most significant phytoplankton

Ocean - Data

National Oceanographic Data Center

Earth Snapshot

Water Density Calculator

Visible Earth

OceanColor WEB

Ocean - General

How the Ocean Works - by Mark Denny

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle - by Richard G. Williams and Michael J. Follows


Marine Ecology - Michel J. Kaiser et al.