These promising results are theoretical. The pictures are stills from a upwelling calculator built with xcode and Swift on Apple OS 10.10 (Yosemite) which is available on the reference page for download (Mac only). The source code is available on request. The calculator displays the results (upwelling rate, exit temperatures, heat transfer coefficients, Reynolds numbers, etc.) when the parameters are varied (temperature profile, conduit sizes, conduit positions,wave height).

Pacific Results

Pacific Image

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Notice that there is an upwelling even at a wave-height of zero. This phenomenon was predicted and known as the "perpetual salt fountain". See "Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert" by Maruyama, S. Tsubaki, K. Taira, K. Sakai, S. in JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY Vol. 60 pp. 563-568 (2004).



In the top several hundred meters in the North Pacific, the concentration of nitrate increases approximately linearly by 6.5 ╬╝moles per liter for every 100 meters depth, and phosphate concentration increases by 0.5 ╬╝moles per liter for every 100 meters depth (Marine Geochemistry edited by Horst D. Schulz and Matthias Zabel, 2006, page 208). With the dimensions given for the device in the pacific, nitrate is added to the photic zone at a rate of 14.95 millimoles per cubic meter of upwelling. The amount of phosphate added is 1.15 millimoles per cubic meter of upwelling. At a rate of 1.4 cubic meters per second, a single upwelling device is delivering 112 kilograms of nitrate and 13.2 kilograms of phosphate to the photic zone each day.